Ansible directory structure (Default vs Vars)


Ansible directory
Defaults and vars

Ansible is one of the most prominent tools among DevOps for managing software configuration because of its ease of use and bare minimum dependencies. The highlight of this tool is Ansible roles which provide a wholesome package of various functionalities that we need for software configuration.

As we know that ansible roles have a wide directory structure that looks something like this.

Continue reading “Ansible directory structure (Default vs Vars)”

How to test Ansible playbook/role using Molecules with Docker

Why Molecule?

Have you ever faced issue that your Ansible code gets executed successfully but something went wrong like, service is not started, the configuration is not getting changed, etc?

Continue reading “How to test Ansible playbook/role using Molecules with Docker”



Managing errors is one of the major challenges while working with any code, the same goes with ansible. It has its own ways of managing errors, whenever ansible encounters an error it stops the execution by default like most of the programming languages and throws an error, and in most cases, these errors leave the hosts in the undesirable state. Continue reading “ERROR HANDLING IN ANSIBLE”

Speeding up Ansible Execution Part 1

The knowledge of one of the SCM tools is a must for any DevOps engineer, ANSIBLE is one of the popular tools in this category, we all are aware of the ease that Ansible provides whether it is infra provisioning, orchestration or application deployment.
The reason for the vast popularity of Ansible is the long list of modules it provides to support any level of automation, moreover it also gives users the flexibility to create their own modules as per their requirement.
But The purpose of this blog is not to mention the features that ansible provides, but to show how we can speed up our playbook execution in Ansible, as a beginner executing ansible, is very easy and it also feels like saving a lot of time with it, but as you dive deep into it, you will come to know that running ansible playbooks will engage you for a considerable amount of time.
There are a lot of articles available on the internet on how we can speed up our ansible execution, so I have decided to sum up those articles into my blog, with the following methods, we can reduce our execution time without compromising with the overall performance of Ansible.
Before starting, I request  you guys to make a small change in your ansible configuration file (ansible.cfg), this small change will help you in tracking the time it will take for the playbook execution, and it also lists out the time is taken by each task.
Just add these lines to your ansible.cfg file under default section,


callback_whitelist = profile_tasks


When you are running your playbooks on various hosts, then you may have noticed that the number of servers where the playbook executes simultaneously is 5. You can increase this number inside the ansible.cfg file:
# ansible.cfg

forks = 10

or with a command line argument to ansible-playbook with the -f or –forks options. We can increase or decrease this value as per our requirement.
while using forks we should use “local_action” or “delegated” steps limited in number, as with higher fork value it will affect the ansible-server’s performance.


In ansible, each task blocks the playbook, meaning the connections stay open until the task is done on each node, which is some cases takes a lot of time, here we can use “async” for those particular tasks, with the help of this ansible will automatically move to another task without waiting for the task execution on each node.
To launch a task asynchronously, we need to specify its maximum runtime and how frequently we would like to poll for status, it’s default value in 10 sec.

– name: “name of the task”  

command: “command we want to execute”     

async: 40    

poll: 15
The only condition is that the subsequent tasks must not have a dependency on this task.

Free Strategy 

When running Ansible playbooks, you might have noticed that the Ansible runs every task on each node one by one, it will not move to another task until a particular task is completed on each node, which will take a lot of time, in some cases.
By default, the strategy is set to “linear”, we can set it to free.

– hosts: “hosts/groups”  

name: “name of the playbook”  

strategy: free

It will run the playbook on each host independently, without waiting for each node to complete.
Facts gathering is the default feature while executing playbook, sometimes we don’t need it.
In those cases, we can disable facts gathering, This has advantages in scaling Ansible in push mode with very large numbers of systems.

– hosts: “hosts/groups”  

name: “name of the playbook”  

gather_facts: no


For each task in Ansible, there are lots of ssh connection created, which results in increasing the total execution time. Pipelining reduces the number of ssh operations required to execute a module by executing many Ansible modules without an actual file transfer. We just have to make these changes in the ansible.cfg file,
# ansible.cfg Pipelining = True
Although this can result in a very significant performance improvement when enabled, Pipelining is disabled by default because requiretty is enabled by default for many distros.

Poll Interval

When we run any the task in Ansible, it starts polling to check if the task is completed on the host or not, we can decrease this polling interval time in ansible.cfg to increase its performance, but it will increase the CPU usage, so we need to adjust its value accordingly We just have to adjust this the parameter in the ansible.cfg file,

so, these are the various ways to decrease our playbook execution time in Ansible, generally we don’t use all these methods in a single setup, we use these features as per the requirement, 
The main motive of writing this blog is to determine the factors which will help in fine-tuning the Ansible performance, and there are many more factors which serves the same purpose but here I am mentioning the most important parameters among them.
I hope I have covered all the important aspects of the blog, feel free to provide your valuable feedback.
Thanks !!!



Thinking what the above diagram is all about. Once you are done with this blog, you will know exactly what it is. Till one month ago, I was of the opinion that Dynamic Inventory is a cool way of managing your AWS infrastructure as you don’t have to track your servers you just have to apply proper tags and Ansible Dynamic Inventory magically manages the inventory for you. Having said that I was not really comfortable using dynamic inventory as it was a black box I tried going through the Python script which was very cryptic & difficult to understand. If you are of the same opinion, then this blog is worth reading as I will try to demystify how things work in Dynamic Inventory and how you can implement your own Dynamic inventory using a very simple python script.

You can refer below article if you want to implement Dynamic inventory for your AWS infrastructure.

Now coming to what is dynamic inventory and how you can create one. You have to understand what Ansible accepts as an inventory file. Ansible expects a JSON in the below format. Below is the screenshot showing the bare minimum content which is required by Ansible. Ansible expects a dictionary of groups (each group having a list of group>hosts, and group variables in the group>vars dictionary), and a _meta dictionary that stores host variables for all hosts individually (inside a hostvars dictionary).

So as long as you can write a script which generates output in the above JSON format. Ansible won’t give you any trouble. So let’s start creating our own custom inventory.

I have created a python script which reads the data from input.csv and generates the JSON as mentioned above. For simplicity, I have kept my input.csv as simple as possible. You can find the code here:-

If you want to test it just clone the code and replace the IP, user and key details as per your environment in the input.csv file. To make sure that our python script is generating the output in standard JSON format as expected by Ansible. You can run ./ –list
And it will generate the output in standard JSON format as shown in below screenshot.

If you want to check how the static inventory file would have looked for the above scenario. You can refer to the below screenshot. It would have served the same purpose as the above dynamic inventory

Now to make sure your custom inventory is working fine. You can run

ansible all -i -m ping

It will try to ping all the hosts mentioned in the CSV. Let’s check it

See it is working, that’s how easy it is.

Instead of a static CSV file, we can have a database where all the hosts and related details are getting updated dynamically. Then Ansible dynamic inventory script can use this database as an inventory source as long as it returns a JSON structure, mentioned in the first screenshot.