Let’s start with a scenario, whenever any application builds, we generally do have 3 environments on the basis of resources – dev for developers resources, test for testers resources, and prod for production resources. Likewise, we used to have a separate IT-Operational Team having strategies to maintain their environment resources. It was very time-consuming and many human resources were required.
We are in the microservices era where we follow the DevOps Methodology. The DevOps Team brings all the environment and strategies to maintain resources in one go. Resources are the ones who decide the behavior of your applications. We can apply the criteria to resources, so how can our application behave? To do this we can give the name to our resources, we can give the resources quota to the application, and can give resource ranges to the application.
In this fast competitive world, everyone is trying to compete with others whether it’s humans or machines. Everyone wants to be fast and one step ahead of others. So, in order to keep pace with the ever-changing technology, you need to keep yourself updated which requires basic training. Also, persevering will make you better day by day.
It’s been more than 6 years since we began the evolution Journey called OpsTree. What a Journey it has been, we cannot thank God and the co-travellers more!!
In 2014 we realized – Cloud and DevOps had arisen in the IT landscape while the industry was still waking up to it. We decided to wake up early and be ready and equipped – aspiring that industry could “Rely on us” – to navigate them comfortably in the realm DevSecOps.
Word “data” is very crucial since early 2000 and within a span of these 2 decades is it becoming more crucial. According to Forbes Google believe that in future every organisation will lead to becoming a data company. Well, when it comes to data, security is one of the major concerns that we have to face.
We have several common techniques to store data in today’s environment like MySql, Oracle, MsSql, Cassandra, Mongo etc and these techs will keep on changing in future. But according to DataAnyz, MySql Still has a 33% share of the market. So here we are with a technique to secure our MySQL data.
Before getting more into this article, let us know what are possible combined approaches to secure MySQL data
Mysql Server hardening
Mysql Application-level hardening
Mysql data encryption at transit
Mysql data at rest encryption
Mysql Disk Encryption
You may explore all the approaches but in this article, we will understand the concept of Mysql data at encryption and hands-on too.
The concept of “Data at Rest Encryption” in MySQL was introduced in Mysql 5.7 with the initial support of InnoDB storage engine only and with the period it has evolved significantly. So let’s understand about “Data at Rest Encryption” in MySQL
What is “Data at Rest Encryption” in MySql?
The concept of “data at rest encryption” uses two-tier encryption key architecture, which used below two keys
Tablespace keys: This is an encrypted key which is stored in the tablespace header
Master Key: the Master key is used to decrypt the tablespace keys
So let’s Understand its working
Let’s say we have a running MySQL with InnoDB storage engine and tablespace is encrypted using a key, referred as table space key. This key is then encrypted using a master key and stored in the tablespace header
Now when a request is made to access MySQL data, InnoDB use master key to decrypt tablespace key present tablespace header. After getting decrypted tablespace key, the tablespace is decrypted and make is available to perform read/write operations
Note: The decrypted version of a tablespace key never changes, but the master key can be rotated.
Data at rest encryption implemented using keyring file plugin to manage and encrypt the master key
After understanding the concept of encryption and decryption below are few Pros and Cons for using DRE
A strong Encryption of AES 256 is used to encrypt the InnoDB tables
It is transparent to all applications as we don’t need any application code, schema, or data type changes
Key management is not done by DBA.
Keys can be securely stored away from the data and key rotation is very simple.
Encrypts only InnoDB tables
Can’t encrypt binary logs, redo logs, relay logs on unencrypted slaves, slow log, error log, general log, and audit log
Though we can’t encrypt binary logs, redo logs, relay logs on Mysql 5.7 but MariaDB has implemented this with a mechanism to encrypt undo/redo logs, binary logs/relay logs, etc. by enabling few flags in MariaDB Config File
Let’s Discuss its problem/solutions and few solutions to them
Running MySQL on a host will have access from root user and the MySQL user and both of them may access key file(keyring file) present on the same system. For this problem, we may have our keys on mount/unmount drive which can be unmounted after restarting MySQL.
Data will not be in encrypted form when it will get loaded onto the RAM and can be dumped and read
If MySQL is restarted with skip-grant-tables then again it’s havoc but this can be eliminated using an unmounted drive for keyring
As tablespace key remains the same so our security relies on Master key rotation which can be used to save our master key
NOTE: Do not to lose the master key file, as we cant decrypt data and will suffer data loss
Doing Is Learning, so let’s try
As a prerequisite, we need a machine with MySQL server up and running Now for data at rest encryption to work we need to enable
Enable file per table on with the help of the configuration file.
[root@mysql ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf [mysqld]
Along with the above parameter, enable keyring plugin and keyring path. This parameter should always be on the top in configuration so that it will get load initially when MySQL starts up. Keyring plugin is already installed in MySQL server we just need to enable it.
[root@mysql ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf [mysqld] early-plugin-load=keyring_file.so keyring_file_data=/var/lib/mysql/keyring-data/keyring innodb_file_per_table=ON
And save the file with a restart to MySQL
[root@mysql ~]# systemctl restart mysql
We can check for the enabled plugin and verify our configuration.
mysql> SELECT plugin_name, plugin_status FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PLUGINS WHERE plugin_name LIKE 'keyring%'; +--------------+---------------+ | plugin_name | plugin_status | +--------------+---------------+ | keyring_file | ACTIVE | +--------------+---------------+ 1 rows in set (0.00 sec)
verify that we have a running keyring plugin and its location
mysql> show global variables like '%keyring%'; +--------------------+-------------------------------------+ | Variable_name | Value | +--------------------+-------------------------------------+ | keyring_file_data | /var/lib/mysql/keyring-data/keyring | | keyring_operations | ON | +--------------------+-------------------------------------+ 2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Verify that we have enabled file per table
MariaDB [(none)]> show global variables like 'innodb_file_per_table'; +-----------------------+-------+ | Variable_name | Value | +-----------------------+-------+ | innodb_file_per_table | ON | +-----------------------+-------+ 1 row in set (0.33 sec)
Now we will test our set up by creating a test DB with a table and insert some value to the table using below commands
mysql> CREATE DATABASE test_db; mysql> CREATE TABLE test_db.test_db_table (id int primary key auto_increment, payload varchar(256)) engine=innodb; mysql> INSERT INTO test_db.test_db_table(payload) VALUES('Confidential Data');
After successful test data creation, run below command from the Linux shell to check whether you’re able to read InnoDB file for your created table i.e. Before encryption
Along with that, we see that our keyring file is also empty before encryption is enabled
[root@mysql ~]# strings /var/lib/mysql/test_db/test_db_table.ibd infimum supremum Confidential DATA
At this point of time if we try to check our keyring file we will not find anything
You can encrypt data at rest by using keyring plugin and we can control and manage it by master key rotation. Creating an encrypted Mysql data file setup is as simple as firing a few simple commands. Using an encrypted system is also transparent to services, applications, and users with minimal impact of system resources. Further with Encryption of data at rest, we may also implement encryption in transit.
I hope you found this article informative and interesting. I’d really appreciate any and all feedback.
This error may strike your Ubuntu at any point at the moment. A few days ago when I was doing my routine work in my Ubuntu laptop, suddenly I encountered with an error “Segmentation fault ( core dumped)” then I got to know that, this error can strike you Ubuntu or any other operating system at any point of the moment as binaries crashing doesn’t depend on us.
Segmentation fault is when your system tries to access a page of memory that doesn’t exist. Core dumped means when a part of code tries to perform read and write operation on a read-only or free location. Segfaults are generally associated with the file named core and It generally happens during up-gradation.
While running some commands during the core-dump situation you may encounter with “Unable to open lock file” this is because the system is trying to capture a bit block which is not existing, This is due to the crashing of binaries of some specific programs.
You may do backtracking or debugging to resolve it but the solution is to repair the broken packages and we can do it by performing the below-mentioned steps:
Step 1: Remove the lock files present at different locations.
sudo rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/lock /var/cache/apt/archives/lock /var/lib/dpkg/lock and restart your system h.cdccdc
Step 2: Remove repository cache.
sudo apt-get clean all
Step 3: Update and upgrade your repository cache.
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
Step 4: Now upgrade your distribution, it will update your packages.
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
Step 5: Find the broken packages and delete them forcefully.
sudo dpkg -l | grep ^..r | apt-get purge
Apart from the command line, the best way which will always work is:
Step 1: Run Ubuntu in startup mode by pressing the Esc key after the restart.
Step 2: Select Advanced options for Ubuntu
Step 3: Run Ubuntu in the recovery mode and you will be listed with many options.
Step 4: First select “Repair broken packages”
Step 5: Then select “Resume normal boot”
So, we have two methods of resolving segmentation fault: CLI and the GUI. Sometimes, it may also happen that the “apt” command is not working because of segfault, so our CLI method will not work, in that case also don’t worry as the GUI method gonna work for us always.